The 15th International Conference on Endothelin was organized in Prague (October 4-7, 2017) by Dr. Vaněčková and Prof. Pernow from the Karolinska Intitute (Sweden). More than one hundred participants from the whole world discussed on the role of endothelins (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3), inhibitors of their receptors, and the molecular mechanisms of their actions (http://www.endothelins.com/Conferences/ET-15/Welcome/). The important part of the conference was devoted to different diseases, their pathology is connected with endothelin family, such as pulmonary hypertension, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Particular attention was also paid to sex differences, immunity and cancer. Moreover, the results of new clinical trials with endothelin receptor blockers were presented. Selected papers were published in Physiological Research, vol. 67, suppl. 1, 2018.